• Superhydrophobic melamine sponge prepared by radiation induced grafting technology for efficient oil-water separation

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-06-07

    摘要: 本文介绍了一种超疏水性三聚氰胺(ME)海绵(ME-g-PLMA),该海绵通过高能辐射诱导的原位共价接枝长烷基十二烷基甲基丙烯酸酯(LMA)到ME海绵上,以实现高效的油水分离。所得的ME-g-PLMA海绵具有优良的孔隙结构,具有超疏水性(水接触角为154°)和超亲油性,可吸收高达自身重量66-168倍的各类油脂。所得到的ME-g-PLMA海绵可以通过连接泵连续分离水面上的浮油,或者通过重力驱动装置分离水下的浮油。ME-g-PLMA海绵在长期浸泡在不同的腐蚀性溶液中,多次反复吸油后,也能保持其高疏水性。所得改性ME-g-PLMA海绵具有优异的分离性能,在溢油清理方面具有巨大的潜力。

  • 10B-doped MCP detector developed for neutron resonance imaging at Back-n white neutron source

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-31

    摘要: Neutron resonance imaging (NRI) has recently emerged as an appealing technique for neutron radiography. Its complexity surpasses that of conventional transmission imaging, as it requires a high demand for both a neutron source and detector. Consequently, the progression of NRI technology has been sluggish since its inception in the 1980s, particularly considering the limited studies analyzing the neutron energy range above keV. The white neutron source (Back-n) at the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) provides favorable beam conditions for the development of the NRI technique over a wide neutron energy range from eV to MeV. Neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCP) have emerged as a cutting-edge tool in the field of neutron detection owing to their high temporal and spatial resolutions, high detection efficiency, and low noise. In this study, we report the development of a 10B-doped MCP detector, along with its associated electronics, data processing system, and NRI experiments at the Back-n. Individual heavy elements such as gold, silver, tungsten, and indium can be easily identified in the transmission images by their characteristic resonance peaks in the 1-100 eV energy range; the more difficult medium-weight elements such as iron, copper, and aluminum with resonance peaks in the 1-100 keV energy range can also be identified. In particular, results in the neutron energy range of dozens of keV (Aluminum) are reported here for the first time.

  • Geant4 simulation of fast electron bremsstrahlung imaging at the HL-3 tokamak

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-31

    摘要: To further research on high-parameter plasma, we plan to develop a two-dimensional hard X-ray (HXR) imag#2;ing system at the HL-3 tokamak to measure HXRs with energies ranging from 20 to 300 keV. The application of an array-structured detector ensures that this system can measure HXR-radiation spectra from the entire plasma cross section. Therefore, it is suitable for the study of fast-electron physics, such as radio-frequency wave current drives, fast electrons driving instabilities, and plasma disruptions in fusion research. In this study, we develop a simulation for calculating fast-electron bremsstrahlung in the HL-3 tokamak based on the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4, in which the plasma geometry and forward scattering of fast-electron bremsstrahlung are considered. The preliminary calculation results indicate that the HXR energy deposition on the detector is symmetrically distributed, even though the plasma distribution is asymmetric owing to the toroidal effect. These simulation results are helpful in constructing the relationship between the energy deposition on the de#2;tector and parameter distribution on the plasma cross section during HL-3 experiments. This is beneficial for the reconstruction of the fast-electron distribution function and for optimizing the design of the HXR-imaging system.

  • Cone-beam computed tomography noise reduction method based on U-Net with convolutional block attention module in proton therapy

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-30

    摘要: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is mostly used for position verification during the treatment pro#2;cess. However, severe image artifacts in CBCT hinder its direct use in dose calculation and adaptive radiationtherapy re-planning for proton therapy. In this study, an improved U-Net neural network named CBAM-U-Netwas proposed for CBCT noise reduction in proton therapy, which is a CBCT denoised U-Net network with con#2;volutional block attention modules. The datasets contained 20 groups of head and neck images. The CT imageswere registered to CBCT images as ground truth. The original CBCT denoised U-Net network, sCTU-Net, wastrained for model performance comparison. The synthetic CT(SCT) images generated by CBAM-U-Net and theoriginal sCTU-Net are called CBAM-SCT and U-Net-SCT images, respectively. The HU accuracies of the CT,CBCT, and SCT images were compared using four metrics: mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error(RMSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structure similarity index measure (SSIM). The mean values ofthe MAE, RMSE, PSNR, and SSIM of CBAM-SCT images were 23.80 HU, 64.63 HU, 52.27 dB, and 0.9919,respectively, which were superior to those of the U-Net-SCT images. To evaluate dosimetric accuracy, the rangeaccuracy was compared for a single-energy proton beam. The γ-index pass rates of a 4 cm × 4 cm scannedfield and simple plan were calculated to compare the effects of the noise reduction capabilities of the originalU-Net and CBAM-U-Net on the dose calculation results. CBAM-U-Net reduced noise more effectively thansCTU-Net, particularly in high-density tissues. We proposed a CBAM-U-Net model for CBCT noise reductionin proton therapy. Owing to the excellent noise reduction capabilities of CBAM-U-Net, the proposed modelprovided relatively explicit information regarding patient tissues. Moreover, it can be used in dose calculationand adaptive treatment planning in the future.

  • Impact of initial fluctuations and nuclear deformations in isobar collisions

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-30

    摘要: Relativistic isobar ($^{96}_{44}$Ru+$^{96}_{44}$Ru and $^{96}_{40}$Zr+$^{96}_{40}$Zr) collisions have revealed intricate differences in their nuclear size and shape, inspiring unconventional studies of nuclear structure using relativistic heavy ion collisions. In this study, we investigate the relative differences in the mean multiplicity ($R_{ langle N_{ rm ch} rangle}$) and the second- ($R_{ epsilon_{2}}$) and third-order eccentricity ($R_{ epsilon_{3}}$) between isobar collisions using Optical and Monte Carlo Glauber models. It is found that initial fluctuations and nuclear deformations have negligible effects on $R_{ langle N_{ rm ch} rangle}$ in most central collisions, while both are important for the $R_{ epsilon_{2}}$ and $R_{ epsilon_{3}}$, the degree of which is sensitive to the underlying nucleonic or sub-nucleonic degree of freedom. These features, compared to real data, may probe the particle production mechanism and the physics underlying nuclear structure.

  • Method for detector description conversion from DD4hep to Filmbox

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-30

    摘要: DD4hep serves as a generic detector de Conversely, Filmbox~(FBX) stands out as a widely used 3D modeling file format within the 3D software industry.In this paper, we introduce a novel method that can automatically convert complex HEP detector geometries from DD4hep de The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by its application to the DD4hep de The automatic DD4hep--FBX detector conversion interface provides convenience for further development of applications, such as detector design, simulation, visualization, data monitoring, and outreach, in HEP experiments. 

  • 基于蒙特卡罗模拟的离子CT图像重建及相对阻止本领误差研究?

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-28

    摘要: 离子束放射治疗(放疗)越来越广泛地被运用于肿瘤治疗,目前使用传统X射线计算机断层扫描(CT)来制定离子放疗治疗计划时存在相对阻止本领(RSP)具有较大误差的问题,理想的方式是直接使用高能离子束对患者成像,生成离子放疗治疗计划设计时所需的医学图像,避免RSP转换从而减小RSP的误差。本研究使用蒙特卡罗程序Geant4/Gate搭建了离子CT模拟平台,设计了理想与现实两种离子CT成像系统探测器,利用最大似然法和ASD-POCS算法实现了图像重建,研究了理想与现实两种设置、多种能量以及不同离子种类对模体内硫、磷、碳和钙四种材料插件重建RSP误差的影响。结果表明,330MeV质子在理想与现实设置两种情况下的RSP相对误差都小于1.547%,理想设置下的RSP相对误差远小于现实设置,现实设置下各材料的RSP重建误差接近理想设置下的三倍;质子的RSP相对误差随着能量的增加而减小,在230MeV时的RSP相对误差最大,在硫、磷、碳和钙四种材料中分别为2.855%、2.468%、1.653%、2.553%。在330MeV时的RSP相对误差达到最小,在硫、磷、碳和钙四种材料中分别为0.181%、0.351%、0.250%和0.245%;在能量330MeV/u下,碳离子在硫、磷、碳和钙四种材料中的RSP相对误差分别为0.060%、0.281%、0.150%、0.082%,误差均在0.281%以内,RSP相对误差小于330MeV的质子。因此,与质子CT相比,碳离子CT能为离子放疗治疗计划设计提供更为精确的RSP数据。

  • Simulation study of the performance of the Very Large Area gamma-ray Space Telescope

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-26

    摘要: The Very Large Area gamma-ray Space Telescope (VLAST) is a mission concept proposed to detect gamma#2;ray photons through both Compton scattering and electron-positron pair production mechanisms, thus enablingthe detection of photons with energies ranging from MeV to TeV. This project aims to conduct a comprehensivesurvey of the gamma-ray sky from a low-Earth orbit using an anti-coincidence detector, a tracker detectorthat also serves as a low-energy calorimeter, and a high-energy imaging calorimeter. We developed a MonteCarlo simulation application of the detector using the GEANT4 toolkit to evaluate the instrument performance,including the effective area, angular resolution, and energy resolution, and explored specific optimizations ofthe detector configuration. Our simulation-based analysis indicates that the current design of the VLAST isphysically feasible, with an acceptance above 10 m2 sr which is four times larger than that of the Fermi-LAT,an energy resolution better than 2% at 10 GeV, and an angular resolution better than 0.2 ◦ at 10 GeV. TheVLAST project promises to make significant contributions to the field of gamma ray astronomy and enhanceour understanding of the cosmos.

  • Machine learning the apparent diffusion coefficient of Se(IV) in compacted bentonite

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-22

    摘要: Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM) and Random Forest (RF) algorithms were used to predict the apparent diffusion coefficient of Se(IV) in compacted bentonite.Seven instances of Se(IV)were measured using through-diffusion method.LightGBM (R2= 0.98 and RMSE = 0.025) exhibited superior predictive accuracy with a trainingdataset consisting of 956instances and eight input featuresfrom Japan Atomic Energy Agency(JAEA-DDB).Shapley Additive Explanation and Partial Dependence Plots analysesrevealedvaluable insightsinto the diffusion mechanism of adsorbed anion obtained by evaluating the relationshipsbetween the apparent diffusion coefficient and the dependency of each input feature.

  • Shuffler中子质询系统核材料质量测量的基体校正新方法

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-15

    摘要: 废物桶中基体材料的存在限制了主动质询系统对核材料质量测量的准确性,确保核保障测量结果不受基体材料的影响至关重要。因此,基于通量监测器响应,本文在传统校正方法的基础上开发了一种新的基体校正方法。为了验证新方法的有效性,利用Geant4工具包构建了WM3210 PAN Shuffler系统模型以及常见的基体材料。结果表明,对于不同富集度以及分布状态的U3O8材料,传统校正方法与新校正方法均可以有效的降低基体材料对核材料质量测量的影响。但相较于传统方法,新方法表现出更好的校正能力。对于U3O8材料位于基体中心的情况,新校正方法得到的235U质量平均相对偏差为13.6%,而对于U3O8材料均匀弥散在基体中的情况,新校正方法得到的235U质量平均相对偏差为7.78%。

  • Carbon-based nanomaterials cause toxicity by oxidative stress to the liver and brain in Sprague–Dawley rats

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-11

    摘要: Carbon-based nanomaterials have important research significance in various disciplines, such as compositematerials, nanoelectronic devices, biosensors, biological imaging, and drug delivery. Recently, the human andecological risks associated with carbon-based nanomaterials have received increasing attention. However, thebiosafety of carbon-based nanomaterials has not been investigated extensively. In this study, we used differenttypes of carbon materials, namely, graphene oxide (GO), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and multiwalledcarbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), as models to observe their distribution and oxidative damage in vivo.The results of Histopathological and ultrastructural examinations indicated that the liver and lungs were the mainaccumulation targets of these nanomaterials. SR-μ-XRF analysis revealed that SWCNTs and MWCNTs mightbe present in the brain. This shows that the three types of carbon-based nanomaterials could cross the gas–bloodbarrier and eventually reach the liver tissue. In addition, SWCNTs and MWCNTs could cross the blood–brainbarrier and accumulate in the cerebral cortex. The increase in ROS and MDA levels and the decrease in GSH,SOD, and CAT levels indicated that the three types of nanomaterials might cause oxidative stress in the liver.This suggests that direct instillation of these carbon-based nanomaterials into rats could induce ROS generation.In addition, iron (Fe) contaminants in these nanomaterials were a definite source of free radicals. However,these nanomaterials did not cause obvious damage to the rat brain tissue. The deposition of selenoprotein inthe rat brain was found to be related to oxidative stress and Fe deficiency. This information may support thedevelopment of secure and reasonable applications of the studied carbon-based nanomaterials.

  • On the accuracy and efficiency of the reactor operation digital twin for parameter identification and state estimation

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-08

    摘要: Accurate and efficient online parameter identification and state estimation are crucial for leveraging Digital Twin simulations to optimize the operation of near-carbon-free nuclear energy systems. In previous studies, we developed a reactor operation digital twin (RODT). However, non-differentiabilities and discontinuities arise when employing machine-learning-based surrogate forward models, challenging traditional gradient-based in verse methods and their variants. This study investigated deterministic and metaheuristic algorithms and developed hybrid algorithms to address these issues. An efficient modular RODT software framework that incorpo rates these methods into its post-evaluation module is presented for comprehensive comparison. The methods were rigorously assessed based on convergence profiles, stability with respect to noise, and computational performance. The numerical results show that the hybrid KNNLHS algorithm excels in real-time online applications, balancing accuracy and efficiency with a prediction error rate of only 1% and processing times of less than 0.1 s. Contrastingly, algorithms such as FSA, DE, and ADE, although slightly slower (approximately 1 s), demonstrated higher accuracy with a 0.3% relative L2 error, which advances RODT methodologies to harness machine learning and system modeling for improved reactor monitoring, systematic diagnosis of off-normal events, and lifetime management strategies. The developed modular software and novel optimization methods presented offer pathways to realize the full potential of RODT for transforming energy engineering practices. 

  • 乏燃料储存用中子/γ射线屏蔽材料研究进展

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-02

    摘要: 随着核工业的发展,核电站产生的乏燃料因其高放射性而引起人们的关注,如何保证核设施的可靠运行和工作人员的安全占据着至关重要的地位。为了避免致命的辐射,已经开发了许多功能性中子/γ射线屏蔽材料。本文回顾了用于乏燃料储存用的不同中子/γ射线屏蔽材料的研究进展,包括硼化不锈钢、含Gd复合材料、B4C/Al复合材料、含铅、钨的复合材料。分别介绍了中子/γ射线屏蔽材料的优缺点,并提出后续乏燃料储存用的中子/γ射线屏蔽材料的研发思路。

  • 贝塔衰变实验中电子对伽马全吸收谱的影响

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-01

    摘要: 贝塔奥斯陆实验方法为研究高激发态下的放射性核素性质以及探究从铁到铀的元素核合成过程提供了一种重要的研究工具。本文提出了一种新型数据处理技术,旨在消除贝塔衰变电子对贝塔奥斯陆实验中了子核伽马退激衰变探测的影响,从而准确地展开观测到的伽马射线光谱。通过运用伽马射线与衰变电子的综合探测器响应函数矩阵,将列主元消去法与逐步迭代反解法相结合,确定真实的入射伽马光谱。通过模拟和反演计算,证实了所提出方法的可靠性与有效性。

  • 脉冲电流作用下纯铁及RPV钢缺陷“修复”的正电子湮没研究

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-05-01

    摘要: 为探究电脉冲处理(Electropulsing treatment,简称EPT)对金属材料缺陷的修复作用,设计了一套电脉冲处理设备和与其配套的处理方法,并对电子辐照样品与拉伸样品等含有缺陷的金属材料进行电脉冲处理。利用正电子谱学对原子尺度缺陷的十分灵敏的特点,对电脉冲处理后样品进行正电子寿命谱等表征,获得纯铁及RPV钢辐照或形变产生缺陷可通过电脉冲处理部分“修复”,缺陷“修复”的效果既与样品初始状态有关,又与电脉冲处理参数有关,正电子湮没作为新的无损检测方法有望给出脉冲电流作用下材料损伤或缺陷“修复”的判据,可方便、快速及高灵敏探测实际工况部件的缺陷状态。

  • Transverse Mode-Coupling Instability with Longitudinal Impedance

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-04-30

    摘要: Transverse mode-coupling instability (TMCI) is a dangerous transverse single-bunch instability that can leadto severe particle loss. The mechanism of TMCI can be explained by the coupling of transverse coherentoscillation modes owing to the transverse short-range wakefield (i.e., the transverse broadband impedance).Recent studies on future circular colliders, e.g., FCC-ee, showed that the threshold of TMCI decreased significantlywhen longitudinal and transverse impedances were included. We performed computations for a circularelectron-positron collider (CEPC) and observed a similar phenomenon. Systematic studies on the influence oflongitudinal impedance on the TMCI threshold were conducted. We concluded that the imaginary part of thelongitudinal impedance, which caused a reduction in the incoherent synchrotron tune, was the primary reasonfor the reduction in the TMCI threshold. Additionally, the real part of the longitudinal impedance assists inincreasing the TMCI threshold.

  • Quick-scanning X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Beamline at SSRF

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-04-29

    摘要: The layout and characteristics of the hard X-ray spectroscopy beamline (BL11B) at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility are described herein. BL11B is a bending-magnet beamline dedicated to conventional millisecond-scale quick-scanning X-ray absorption fine structures. It is equipped with a cylindrical collimating mirror, a double-crystal monochromator comprising Si(111) and Si(311), a channel-cut quick-scanning Si(111) monochromator, a toroidal focusing mirror, and a high harmonics rejection mirror. It can provide 5–30 keV of X-rays with a photon flux of ~5 × 1011 photons/s and an energy resolution of ~ 1.31 × 10-4 at 10 keV. The performance of the beamline can satisfy the demands of users in the fields of catalysis, materials, and environmental science. This paper presents an overview of the beamline design and a detailed description of its performance and capabilities.

  • One-neutron stripping process in the 209Bi(6Li, 5Li)210Bi* reaction

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-04-29

    摘要: One-neutron stripping process between 6Li and 209Bi was studied at 28, 30, and 34 MeV using the in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy method. The γ-γ coincident analysis clearly identified two γ-rays feeding the ground and long-lived isomeric states, which were employed to determine the cross section. The one-neutron stripping cross sections were similar to the cross sections of complete fusion in the 6Li+209Bi system, but the one-neutron stripping cross sections decreased more gradually at the sub-barrier region. A coupled-reaction-channel calculation was performed to study the detailed reaction mechanism of the one-neutron stripping process in 6Li. The calculations indicated that the first excited state of 5Li is critical in the actual one-neutron transfer mechanism, and the valence proton of 209Bi can be excited to the low-lying excited state in (6Li, 5Li) reaction, unlike in the (d,p) reaction.

  • Ultrahard X-ray Multifunctional Application Beamline at the SSRF

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-04-29

    摘要: The Ultrahard X-ray Multifunctional Application Beamline (BL12SW) is one of the Phase-II Beamline Projects at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The primary X-ray techniques used at the beamline are high-energy X-ray diffraction and imaging using white and monochromatic light. The main scientific objectives of ultrahard X-ray beamline are focused on two research areas. One is the study of the structural properties of Earth’s interior and new materials under extreme high-temperature and high-pressure conditions, and the other is the characterization of materials and processes in near-real service environments. The beamline utilizes a superconducting wiggler as the light source, with two diamond windows and SiC discs to filter out low-energy light (primarily below 30 keV) and a Cu filter assembly to control the thermal load entering the subsequent optical components. The beamline is equipped with dual monochromators. The first was a meridional bending Laue monochromator cooled by liquid nitrogen, achieving a full-energy coverage of 30–162 keV. The second was a sagittal bending Laue monochromator installed in an external building, providing a focused beam in the horizontal direction with an energy range of 60–120 keV. There were four experimental hutches: two large volume press (LVP) experimental hutches (LVP1 and LVP2) and two engineering material (ENG) experimental hutches (ENG1 and ENG2). Each hutch was equipped with various near-real service conditions to satisfy different requirements. For example, LVP1 and LVP2 were equipped with a 200-ton DDIA press and a 2000-ton dual-mode (DDIA and Kawai) press, respectively. ENG1 and ENG2 provide in-situ tensile, creep, and fatigue tests as well as high-temperature conditions. Since June 2023, the BL12SW has been in trial operation. It is expected to officially open to users by early 2024.

  • In-situ measurement via the flow-through method and numerical simulations for radon exhalation during measurements of the radon exhalation rate

    分类: 核科学技术 >> 辐射物理与技术 提交时间: 2024-04-26

    摘要: Small-scale measurements of the radon exhalation rate using the flow-through and closed-loop methods were conducted on the surface of a uranium tailing pond to better understand the differences between the two methods.An abnormal radon exhalation behavior was observed, leading to computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations in which dynamic radon migration in a porous medium and accumulation chamber was considered.Based on the in-situ experimental and numerical simulation results, variations in the radon exhalation rate subject to permeability, flow rate, and insertion depth were quantified and analyzed. The in-situ radon exhalation rates measured using the flow-through method were higher than those measured using the closed-loop method, which could be explained by the negative pressure difference between the inside and outside of the chamber during the measurements. The consistency of the variations in the radon exhalation rate between the experiments and simulations suggests the reliability of CFD-based techniques in obtaining the dynamic evolution of transient radon exhalation rates for diffusion and convection at the porous medium–air interface. The synergistic effects of the three factors (insertion depth, flow rate, and permeability) on the negative pressure difference and measured exhalation rate were quantified, and multivariate regression models were established, with positive correlations in most cases; the exhalation rate decreased with increasing insertion depth at a permeability of 1×10−11 m2. CFD-based simulations can provide theoretical guidance for improving the flow-through method and thus achieve accurate measurements

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