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  • Improved mass relations of mirror nuclei

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-06-04

    摘要: In this study, we revisit the previous mass relations of mirror nuclei by considering 1/N- and1/Z-dependent terms and the shell effect across a shell. The root-mean-squared deviation is 66 keVfor 116 nuclei with neutron number N ≥ 10, as compared with experimental data compiled in theAME2020 database. The predicted mass excesses of 173 proton-rich nuclei, including 98 unknownnuclei, are tabulated in the Supplemental Material herein with competitive accuracy.

  • The medium temperature dependence of jet transport coefficient in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-06-03

    摘要: The medium temperature $T$ dependence of jet transport coefficient $ hat q$ is studied via nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}(p_{ rm T})$ and elliptical flow parameter $v_2(p_{ rm T})$ for large transverse momentum $p_{ rm T}$ hadrons in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Within a next-to-leading order perturbative QCD parton model for hard scatterings with modified fragmentation functions due to jet quenching controlled by $ hat q$, we check the suppression as well as the azimuthal anisotropy for large $p_{ rm T}$ hadrons, and extract $ hat q$ by global fits to $R_{AA}(p_{ rm T})$ and $v_2(p_{ rm T})$ data in $A+A$ collisions at RHIC and the LHC, respectively. Numerical results from the best fits show that $ hat q/T^3$ goes down with the local medium temperature $T$ in the parton jet trajectory. Compared with the case of a constant $ hat{q}/T^3$, the going-down $T$ dependence of $ hat{q}/T^3$ makes a hard parton jet to lose more energy near $T_c$ and therefore strengthens the azimuthal anisotropy for large $p_{ rm T}$ hadrons. As a result, $v_2(p_{ rm T})$ for large $p_{ rm T}$ hadrons is enhanced by about 10 % to fit data better at RHIC/LHC. Considering the first-order phase transition from QGP to the hadron phase and additional energy loss in the hadron phase, $v_2(p_{ rm T})$ is again enhanced by 5-10 % at RHIC/LHC.

  • Simulation and reconstruction of particle trajectories in the CEPC drift chamber

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-06-02

    摘要: The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) is designed to precisely measure the properties of the Higgs boson, study electroweak interactions at the Z-boson peak, and search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. As a component of the 4th Conceptual CEPC detector, the drift chamber facilitates the measurement of charged particles. This study implemented a Geant4-based simulation and track reconstruction for the drift chamber. For the simulation, detector construction and response were implemented and added to the CEPC simulation chain. The development of track reconstruction involved track finding using the Combinatorial Kalman Filter method and track fitting using the tool of GenFit. Using the simulated data, the tracking performance was studied. The results showed that both the reconstruction resolution and tracking efficiency satisfied the requirements of the CEPC experiment.

  • Fast X-ray Imaging Beamline at SSRF

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-05-29

    摘要: The fast X-ray imaging beamline (BL16U2) at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is a new beamline that provides X-ray micro-imaging capabilities across a wide range of time scales, spanning from 100 ps to μs and ms. This beamline has been specifically designed to facilitate the investigation of a wide range of rapid phenomena, such as the deformation and failure of materials subjected to intense dynamic loads. In addition, it enables the study of high-pressure and high-speed fuel spray processes in automotive engines. The light source of this beamline is a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU) that is cooled by liquid nitrogen. This CPMU can generate X-ray photons within an energy range of 8.7-30 keV. The beamline offers two modes of operation: monochromatic beam mode with a liquid nitrogen-cooled double-crystal monochromator (DCM) and pink beam mode with the first crystal of the DCM out of the beam path. Four X-ray imaging methods were implemented in BL16U2: single-pulse ultrafast X-ray imaging, microsecond-resolved X-ray dynamic imaging, millisecond-resolved X-ray dynamic micro-CT, and high-resolution quantitative micro-CT. Furthermore, BL16U2 is equipped with various in situ impact loading systems, such as a split Hopkinson bar system, light gas gun, and fuel spray chamber. Following the completion of the final commissioning in 2021 and subsequent trial operations in 2022, the beamline has been officially available to users from 2023.

  • Rutherford’s Atomic Nucleus versus Landau’s Gigantic Nucleus: Does Nature favor flavor symmetry?

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 分类: 物理学 >> 地球物理学、天文学和天体物理学 提交时间: 2024-05-29

    摘要: It is hypothesized that, though atomic nuclei are made of nucleons, strongly interacting matter with baryon number from $A simeq 10^{3-9}$ to $ sim 10^{57}$ would be composed of strangeons if Nature favors always the flavor symmetry of quarks.According to that logic, strangeon matter with $A sim 10^{57}$ could manifest in the form of pulsar-like compact stars, and multi-messenger observations with advanced facilities (e.g., China’s FAST) could eventually provide a disproof/proof.It is worth emphasizing that this point of view, based on established “old physics”, may have particular consequences for understanding our material world, for both normal luminous matter and the dark sector.

  • Structure and 2p decay mechanism of $^{18}Mg$

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-05-24

    摘要: The recently discovered, extremely proton-rich nuclide18Mg exhibits ground-state decay via two sequential two-proton (2p) emissions through the intermediate nucleus,16Ne. This study investigates the structure and the initial2pdecay mechanism of18Mgby examining the density and correlations of the valence protons using a three-body Gamow-coupled-channel method. The results show that the ground state of18Mgis significantly influenced by the continuum, resulting in a significants-wave component. However, based on the current frame- work, this does not lead to a significant deviation in mirror symmetry in either the structure or spectroscopy of the18Mg-18Cpair. Additionally, the time evolution analysis of the18Mgground state suggests a simultaneous2pemission during the first step of decay. The observed nucleon–nucleon correlations align with those of the light–mass2pemitters, indicating a consistent decay behavior within this nuclear region.

  • Design and high power testing of offline conditioning cavity for CiADS RFQ high power coupler

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-05-23

    摘要: 为验证RFQ腔体功率输入耦合器设计的合理性和减少腔体污染,设计了低损耗离线锻炼腔体,并进行了高功率试验。离线锻炼腔由两个耦合口和两个调谐器口组成。此外,耦合环的安装角度和调谐器的插入深度可以用来低腔体的功率损耗。对该离线锻炼腔体进行了电磁结构和多物理场模拟,结果表明该腔体的最小理论功率损耗为4.3%。当腔体频率变化为110kHz时,理论功率损耗增加到10%。因此,调谐器在调节过程中始终处于运动状态。多物理场模拟表明,腔体温度的升高对频率变化没有影响。当离线高功率锻炼平台建成后,测量了该系统的传输性能,功率损耗为6.3%,大于理论计算值。高功率离线锻炼采用了高效的自动扫福和驻波谐振锻炼方法。为了充分锻炼高功率输入耦合器,选择了13个驻波点。最大连续波功率大于20kW,优于预期目标。

  • Development of an enhanced online tritium monitoring system using plastic scintillation fiber array

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-05-20

    摘要: Tritium, a radioactive nuclide discharged by nuclear power plants, poses challenges for removal. Continuous online monitoring of tritium in water is crucial for real-time radiation data, given its predominant existence in the environment as water. This paper presents the design, simulation, and development of a tritium monitoring device utilizing a plastic scintillation fiber (PSF) array. Experimental validation confirmed the device’s detection efficiency and minimum detectable activity. The recorded detection efficiency of the device is 1.6 × 10−3 , which exceeds the theoretically simulated value of 4 × 10−4 by four times. Without shielding, the device can achieve a minimum detectable activity of 3165 Bq L−1 over a 1600-second measurement duration. According to simulation and experimental results, enhancing detection efficiency is possible by increasing the number and length of PSFs and implementing rigorous shielding measures. Additionally, reducing the diameter of PSFs can also improve detection efficiency. The minimum detectable activity of the device can be further reduced using the aforementioned methods.

  • TMSR熔盐泵实时异常监测系统设计与开发

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-05-20

    摘要: 熔盐泵是2 MW液态燃料钍基熔盐堆(Thorium Molten Salt Reactor-Liquid Fuel,TMSR-LF1)回路系统的主要设备之一,承担着驱动熔盐在回路中循环的重要职责。熔盐泵运行的安全性和可靠性直接影响到反应堆运行的安全性和经济性,而状态监测是保证系统运行安全性和经济性的有效手段。为了能够及时发现设备及系统的运行异常,帮助操作员更快速掌握设备运行情况信息,为视情检修提供依据,基于Windows呈现基础(Windows Presentation Foundation, WPF)框架,采用MVVM(Model-View-ViewModel)模式开发了熔盐泵实时异常监测系统,实现了熔盐泵监测模型管理、实时监测与报警、异常信号定位、日志查询等功能。测试结果表明,该系统准确有效,且具有较高的稳定性,能够为操作和运行人员提供有效信息,辅助运行决策。相较于传统的DCS阈值报警,提高了异常检测的及时性和有效性,为后续智能运行支持的应用实现奠定基础。

  • Sustainability-oriented prioritization of nuclear fuel cycle transitions in China: A holistic MCDM framework under uncertainties

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-05-17

    摘要: A sustainability-oriented assessment of the nuclear energy system can provide informative and convincing decision-making support for nuclear development strategies in China. In our previous study, four authentic nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) transition scenarios were proposed, featuring different development stages and exhibiting distinct environmental, economic, and technical characteristics. However, because of the multiple and often conflicting criteria embedded therein, determining the top-priority NFC alternative for a sustainability orientation remains challenging. To address this issue, this study proposed a novel hybrid multi-criteria decision-making framework comprising fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE)-Geometrical Analysis for Interactive Aid (GAIA), and MOORA. Initially, an improved fuzzy AHP weighting model was developed to determine criteria weights under uncertainty and investigate the influence of various weight aggregation and defuzzification approaches. Subsequently, PROMETHEE-GAIA was used to address conflicts among the criteria and prioritize alternatives on a visualized k-dimensional GAIA plane. As a result, the alternative for direct recycling pressurized water reactor spent fuel in fast reactors is considered the most sustainable. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the influence of criteria weight variation and validate the screening results. Finally, using MOORA, some significant optimization ideas and valuable insights were provided to support decision-makers in shaping nuclear development strategies.

  • Passive Neutron Multiplicity Device for 240Pu Measurement Based on FPGA

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-05-17

    摘要: A passive neutron multiplicity measurement device, FH-NCM/S1, based on field-programmable gate arrays(FPGAs), is developed specifically for measuring the mass of plutonium-240 (240Pu) in mixed oxide fuel. FHNCM/S1 adopts an integrated approach, combining the shift-register analysis mode with the pulse-positiontimestamp mode using an FPGA. The optimal effective length of the 3He neutron detector was determined tobe 30 cm, and the thickness of the graphite reflector was ascertained to be 15 cm through MCNP simulations.After fabricating the device, calibration measurements were performed using a 252Cf neutron source; a detectionefficiency of 43.07% and detector die-away time of 55.79 μs were observed. Nine samples of plutoniumoxide were measured under identical conditions using the FH-NCM/S1 in shift-register analysis mode and aplutonium-waste multiplicity counter. The obtained double rates underwent corrections for detection efficiency(ε) and double gate fraction (f d), resulting in corrected double rates (Dc), which were used to validate the accuracyof the shift-register analysis mode. Furthermore, the device exhibited fluctuations in the measurementresults, and within a single 20-s measurement, these fluctuations remained below 10%. After 30 cycles, therelative error in the mass of 240Pu was less than 5%. Finally, correlation calculations confirmed the robustconsistency of both measurement modes. This study holds specific significance for the subsequent design anddevelopment of neutron multiplicity devices.

  • Reliable calculations of nuclear binding energies by the Gaussian process of machine learning

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-05-11

    摘要: Reliable calculations of nuclear binding energies are crucial for advancing the research of nuclear physics. Machine learning provides an innovative approach to exploring complex physical problems. In this study, the nuclear binding energies are modeled directly using a machine-learning method called the Gaussian process. First, the binding energies for 2238 nuclei withZ >20andN >20are calculated using the Gaussian process in a physically motivated feature space, yielding an average deviation of 0.046 MeV and a standard deviation of 0.066 MeV. The results show the good learning ability of the Gaussian process in the studies of binding energies. Then, the predictive power of the Gaussian process is studied by calculating the binding energies for 108 nuclei newly included in AME2020. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data, reflecting the good predictive power of the Gaussian process. Moreover, theα-decay energies for 1169 nuclei with50≤Z≤110are derived from the theoretical binding energies calculated using the Gaussian process. The average deviation and the standard deviation are, respectively, 0.047 MeV and 0.070 MeV. Noticeably, the calculatedα-decay energies for the two new isotopes204Ac M. H. Huanget al.,Phys. Lett. B834, 137484 (2022) and207Th H. B. Yanget al.,Phys. Rev. C105, L051302 (2022) agree well with the latest experimental data. These results demonstrate that the Gaussian process is reliable for the calculations of nuclear binding energies. Finally, theα-decay properties of some unknown actinide nuclei are predicted using the Gaussian process. The predicted results can be useful guides for future research on binding energies andα-decay properties.

  • 中国散裂中子源上的一种双束团数据解析方法

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-05-10

    摘要: 中国散裂中子源(CSNS)可提供0.3 eV至300 MeV的白光中子束流,总束流强度可达107n/s/cm2,为中子俘获反应截面的测量提供了一个优秀的实验平台。CSNS在正常的运行模式下会由加速器产生两个间隔410 ns的质子束团先后打靶,因此产生的中子束流也由间隔为410 ns的两个束团混合而成。为避免两个束团的效应相互干扰,影响中子俘获截面的能量精度,需要对实验数据进行解析和重构,还原单个束团的效应。现有的解析方法可以得到非常精细的解谱结果,但相对复杂,具有一定使用门槛。本工作提出了一种简化的双束团解谱方法,在保证中子能量精度的情况下适用于中子能量低于1.2 MeV的数据,为同类型的实验工作提供一种新的数据处理思路。

  • 重离子辐照CMOS图像传感器导致的永久损伤效应

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-05-08

    摘要: 互补型金属氧化物半导体(Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, CMOS)图像传感器有着体积小,质量轻,功耗低,高集成度等特点正逐步取代CCD图像传感器,在空间辐射环境中有着质子,重粒子,γ射线,电子等大量的高能粒子,CMOS图像传感器会受到重离子的辐射效应并对其有着永久损伤的影响。本文主要是针对CMV4000在重离子辐照下的永久损伤机制。CMV4000在经过重离子辐照过后其图像有着明显的热像素(暗电流尖峰高于其他像素暗电流尖峰数倍通常表现为该像素的灰度值是其他正常像素的数倍),在下一帧图像以及后续图像中热像素也并不会消失,因此热像素并不是暂时的。本文还将考虑 CMOS图像传感器在辐照前后各像参数的对比并揭示各项参数的退化机理。

  • IGFBP-3蛋白对重离子辐射损伤小鼠的防护作用研究

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 分类: 生物学 >> 放射生物学 提交时间: 2024-05-06

    摘要: 我国载人航天和核技术应用正处于快速发展阶段,辐射与核安全仍将长期成为国家重大需求,持续开发新的辐射防护分子靶标和相关药物具有重要价值。先前的研究已发现电离辐射暴露后小鼠血液中的胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白3(IGFBP-3)的水平显著上升,但是,IGFBP-3蛋白的功能及其血液水平的变化对小鼠辐射损伤的影响仍不清楚。本研究在小鼠肝脏巨噬细胞(Kupffer细胞,MKC)中建立了Igfbp3基因过表达和敲低细胞模型,利用CCK-8、EdU掺入、克隆形成和微球吞噬实验对碳离子照射后不同细胞模型的增殖活力、DNA复制活性和吞噬能力进行检测;在小鼠模型中,通过在照射前2小时尾静脉注射重组IGFBP-3蛋白提前升高血液IGFBP-3蛋白水平,检测致死剂量(5 Gy)碳离子全身照射后小鼠的生存曲线。结果显示,过表达IGFBP-3蛋白显著提高了MKC细胞在辐射暴露后的DNA复制活性、细胞活力、克隆形成率和对微球的吞噬能力,相反地,敲低IGFBP-3蛋白表达则降低了以上检测指标。碳离子辐射暴露前尾静脉注射IGFBP-3蛋白可以显著延缓急性放射损伤小鼠的死亡时间。以上结果从细胞和动物水平表明了IGFBP-3蛋白具有减轻辐射损伤的作用和作为辐射防护药靶的巨大潜力。通过增强小鼠体内Kupffer细胞的辐射抗性和吞噬能力来降低辐射暴露后的感染风险可能是IGFBP-3蛋白发挥辐射防护作用的机制之一。

  • A real-time calibration method based on time-to-digital converter for accelerator timing system

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-04-28

    摘要: The high-intensity heavy-ion accelerator facility (HIAF) is a scientific research facility complex composed ofmultiple cascade accelerators of different types, which pose a scheduling problem for devices distributed overa certain range of 2 km, involving over a hundred devices. The White Rabbit (WR), a technology-enhancingGigabit Ethernet, has shown the capability of scheduling distributed timing devices but still faces the challengeof obtaining real-time synchronization calibration parameters with high precision. This study presents a calibra#2;tion system based on a time-to-digital converter implemented on an ARM-based System-on-Chip (SoC). Thesystem consists of four multi-sample delay lines, a bubble-proof encoder, an edge controller for managing datafrom different channels, and a highly effective calibration module that benefits from the SoC architecture. Theperformance was evaluated with an average RMS precision of 5.51 ps by measuring the time intervals from 0to 24000 ps with 120000 data for every test. The design presented in this study refines the calibration precisionof the HIAF timing system. This eliminates the errors caused by manual calibration without efficiency loss andprovides data support for fault diagnosis. It can also be easily tailored or ported to other devices for specificapplications and provides more space for developing timing systems for particle accelerators, such as whiterabbits on HIAF.

  • The SLEGS beamline of SSRF

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-04-28

    摘要: The Shanghai Laser Electron Gamma Source (SLEGS, located in BL03SSID) beamline at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is a laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma source used for the investigation of nuclear structure, which is in extensive demand in fields such as nuclear astrophysics, nuclear cluster structure, polarization physics, and nuclear energy. The beamline is based on the inverse Compton scattering of 10640 nm photons on 3.5 GeV electrons and a gamma source with variable energy by changing the scattering angle from 20° to 160°. γ-rays of 0.25–21.1 MeV can be extracted by the scheme consisting of the interaction chamber, coarse collimator, fine collimator, and attenuator. The maximum photon flux for 180° is approximately 10^7 photons/s at the target at 21.7 MeV, with a 3-mm diameter beam. The beamline was equipped with four types of spectrometers for experiments in (γ,γ’), (γ,n), and (γ,p α). At present, nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) spectrometry, flat efficiency neutron detector (FED) spectrometry, neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometry, and light-charged particle (LCP) spectrometry methods have been developed.

  • Construction and performance test of charged particle detector array for MATE

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 分类: 核科学技术 >> 核探测技术与核电子学 提交时间: 2024-04-28

    摘要: A charged particle array, named MATE-PA, which serves as an auxiliary detec#2;tor system to the Multi-purpose Active-target Time projection chamber for nuclear astrophysical and exotic beam Experiments (MATE) has been con#2;structed. The array is composed of twenty single-sided strip-silicon detectors, covering around 10% of the solid angle. It is dedicated for the detection of reaction-induced charged particles which penetrate the MATE active volume. The performance of MATE-PA has been experimentally studied using an alpha source, and a 36-MeV 14N beam injected into the chamber of MATE, filled with a mixture gas of 95% 4He and 5% CO2 under the pressure of 500 mbar, at the Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou (RIBLL). The results demonstrate good separation of light charged particles with the forward double-layer silicon detectors of MATE-PA. The energy resolution of the Si detectors was deduced to be about 1% (σ) for an energy loss of about 10 MeV by the α particles. The inclusion of MATE-PA helps improve particle identification, and increases the dynamic range for the kinetic energy of charged particles, in particular that of α particles up to about 15 MeV.

  • Reliability of DC-link capacitor in pulsed power supply for accelerator magnet

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-04-28

    摘要: Capacitors are widely used in pulsed magnet power supplies to reduce ripple voltage, store energy, and decrease power variation. In this study, DC-link capacitors in pulsed power supplies were investigated. By deriving an analytical method for the capacitor current on the H-bridge topology side, the root-mean-square value of the capacitor current was calculated, which helps in selecting the DC-link capacitors. The proposed method solves this problem quickly and with high accuracy. The current reconstruction of the DC-link capacitor is proposed to avoid structural damage in the capacitor’s current measurement, and the capacitor’s hot spot temperature and temperature rise are calculated using the FFT transform. The test results showed that the error between the calculated and measured temperature increases was within 1.5 ◦C. Finally, the lifetime of DC-link capacitors was predicted based on Monte Carlo analysis. The proposed method can evaluate the reliability of DC-link capacitors in a non-isolated switching pulsed power supply for accelerators and is also applicable to film capacitors.

  • Possibilities for the synthesis of superheavy element Z = 121 in fusion reactions

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2024-04-18

    摘要: Based on the dinuclear system model, the calculated evaporation residue cross sections matched well with the current experimental results. The synthesis of superheavy elements Z = 121 was systematically studied through combinations of stable projectiles with Z = 21–30 and targets with half-lives exceeding 50 d. The influence of mass asymmetry and isotopic dependence on the projectile and target nuclei was investigated in detail. The reactions 254Es (46Ti, 3n) 297121 and 252Es (46Ti, 3n) 295121 were found to be experimentally feasible for synthesizing superheavy element Z = 121, with maximal evaporation residue cross sections of 6.619 and 4.123 fb at 219.9 and 223.9 MeV, respectively.

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